Convert raw vectors to R vectors

Usage

raw_to_uint8(x)

raw_to_uint16(x)

raw_to_uint32(x)

raw_to_int8(x)

raw_to_int16(x)

raw_to_int32(x)

raw_to_int64(x)

raw_to_float(x)

raw_to_string(x)

Arguments

x

raw vector of bytes

Value

Numeric vectors, except for raw_to_string, which returns a string.

Details

For numeric conversions, the function names are straightforward. For example, raw_to_uintN converts raw vectors to unsigned integers, and raw_to_intN converts raw vectors to signed integers. The number 'N' stands for the number of bits used to store the integer. For example raw_to_uint8 uses 8 bits (1 byte) to store an integer, hence the value range is 0-255.

The input data length must be multiple of the element size represented by the underlying data. For example uint16 integer uses 16 bites, and one raw number uses 8 bits, hence two raw vectors can form one unsigned integer-16. That is, raw_to_uint16 requires the length of input to be multiple of two. An easy calculation is: the length of x times 8, must be divided by 'N' (see last paragraph for definition).

The returned data uses the closest available R native data type that can fully represent the data. For example, R does not have single float type, hence raw_to_float returns double type, which can represent all possible values in float. For raw_to_uint32, the potential value range is 0 - (2^32-1). This exceeds the limit of R integer type (-2^31) - (2^31-1). Therefore, the returned values will be real (double float) data type.

There is no native data type that can store integer-64 data in R, package bit64 provides integer64 type, which will be used by raw_to_int64. Currently there is no solution to convert raw to unsigned integer-64 type.

raw_to_string converts raw to character string. This function respects null character, hence is slightly different than the native rawToChar, which translates raw byte-by-byte. If each raw byte represents a valid character, then the above two functions returns the same result. However, when the characters represented by raw bytes are invalid, raw_to_string will stop parsing and returns only the valid characters, while rawToChar will still try to parse, and most likely to result in errors. Please see Examples for comparisons.

Examples


# 0x00, 0x7f, 0x80, 0xFF
x <- as.raw(c(0, 127, 128, 255))

raw_to_uint8(x)
#> [1]   0 127 128 255

# The first bit becomes the integer sign
# 128 -> -128, 255 -> -1
raw_to_int8(x)
#> [1]    0  127 -128   -1

## Comments based on little endian system

# 0x7f00 (32512), 0xFF80 (65408 unsigned, or -128 signed)
raw_to_uint16(x)
#> [1] 32512 65408
raw_to_int16(x)
#> [1] 32512  -128

# 0xFF807F00 (4286611200 unsigned, -8356096 signed)
raw_to_uint32(x)
#> [1] 4286611200
raw_to_int32(x)
#> [1] -8356096

# ---------------------------- String ---------------------------

# ASCII case: all valid
x <- charToRaw("This is an ASCII string")

raw_to_string(x)
#> [1] "This is an ASCII string"
rawToChar(x)
#> [1] "This is an ASCII string"

x <- c(charToRaw("This is the end."),
as.raw(0),
charToRaw("*** is invalid"))

# rawToChar will raise error
raw_to_string(x)
#> [1] "This is the end."

# ---------------------------- Integer64 ------------------------
# Runs on little endian system
x <- as.raw(c(0x80, 0x00, 0x7f, 0x80, 0xFF, 0x50, 0x7f, 0x00))

# Calculate bitstring, which concaternates the followings
# 10000000 (0x80), 00000000 (0x00), 01111111 (0x7f), 10000000 (0x80),
# 11111111 (0xFF), 01010000 (0x50), 01111111 (0x7f), 00000000 (0x00)

if(.Platform\$endian == "little") {
bitstring <- paste0(
"00000000011111110101000011111111",
"10000000011111110000000010000000"
)
} else {
bitstring <- paste0(
"00000001000000001111111000000001",
"11111111000010101111111000000000"
)
}

# This is expected value
bit64::as.integer64(structure(
bitstring,
class = "bitstring"
))
#> integer64
#> [1] 35836380344942720

# This is actual value
raw_to_int64(x)
#> integer64
#> [1] 35836380344942720